Alternative farming Print
Ecologization - Peoples Eco-Life Project
Wednesday, 30 September 2009 08:56


(Thesis of the research)

Oksana Inte
Head of educational-practical center of organic agriculture,
Head of Kyiv regional branch «MAMA-86»

Over a period of human history there were people who tend to lifestyle in the harmony with nature: when the environment was not wrecking, productive capacity of soil remaining and even improving, yieldsbecoming better, fruits more useful, and there was work less and less.

People could not think of anything better than it was done by nature. Therefore, watching and copying nature, people were developing different systems of husbandry on the Earth.

In the last and current century, progressive landowners started to introduce a couple of “alternative” agriculturaltrends, after they have got an evidence of malignancy from “traditional” arable farming with seam turningand usingagricultural chemistry and genetic-modified organisms in practice. As a matter of fact, targets and tasks ofthesetrends are the same: stop barbarous treatment of the Earth, grow delicious and healthy and ecologically pure clean products with minimum of labour and other resources’ input.

1. Modern trends and tendencies in the field of alternative farming

1.1. No-till-technology

No-till – is a short name from zero technology, when planted seeds had not been treated with chemicals. No-till-technology is wide spread nowadays around the world, and usually used on big farms. For the above technology leading farming machines produces have created specialized, modern sowing machines that allow performing 3 operations during one go: add fertilizer under the sowing line, sowing seeds and packing. And all this is done with at the speed of 15 ha/h. Universality of the sowing system “HORSCH – AGRO SOYUZ” helps to decrease notonlyfuel expenses but also time. The sowing process with such productivity does not take a month, but only 10 days.With such technology fuels and lubricants costs are cut down 11 times!

Principles of No-till-technology are:

  • For planting soil treatment is not necessary.
  • The remains from harvesting are very valuable products and they are left on the fields as mulch.
  • Extra mulching is forbidden.
  • Soil should have a permanent coating (covering).
  • Emphasis is done on biological processes in the soil.
  • Biological methods are used as one of the main possible pest control options.
  • Soil erosion, under the influence of water and wind, is just symptom of the fact that on this landandecosystem wrong farming methods are used (erosion is caused by incorrectlandcultivation).                                          

Nowadays No-till technology can not be completely related to organic farming, because during the transitional period fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides are used. According to zero technology specialists, as mulch layerisgrowing on the surface of the ground and necessity to add fertilizers and chemicals is put off, because mulch after rotting through, creates fertile layer that helps soil aeration and suppresses weed growth.

No-till technology, complex system, of weed control is based on 3 “three pillars”: crop rotation, creation of mulch layer, using herbicides.

In Ukraine the most famous company using No-till technology is “Agro-Soyuz” that has got farmlands in Dnepropetrovskay region. Company founded in 90ies, that was specializing in delivery of spare parts for farming machines, today developed into the producer of modern agricultural machinery. Sowing systems “HORSCH – AGRO SOYUZ” are very popular around the world.  Nowadays this big corporation is not only working inplantcultivation but also animal breeding (pig-breeding, ostrich breeding, dairy cattle breeding), thus closing farming cycle.

1.2. Landscape – adaptive farming

Main principle is not to disturb natural landscapes. Correlation of forests, fields, meadows, lakes and rivers should be kept to maintain natural balance.  It is recommended to renew forest tracts around rivers, lakes, hills and inarable lands. Create forest-protection and wind break belts on huge arable lands.  The main point of adaptive farming (adapted, self-sustained) is maximum of capital investment recoupment.

  • Maintain ecological balance in nature, use natural bioclimatic factors.
  • If possibly turn underproductive arable land from crop rotation into hayfields and grasslands.
  • Accumulate humus and nitrogen in the soil at the expense of growing perennial herbs, leguminous plants and siderites.
  • Reduce soil erosion at the expense of ground-covering plants, crop rotation and aimed tilth.
  • Reduce usage of pesticides and fertilizers.
  • Keeping the correlation between plant cultivation and animal breeding.
  • Reserve (preserve) erosive soil for a long term.

For instance, in the USA there is a programme on land conservation and compensation payments of expensestofarmers. Also big funds are used for research works on general issues of farming and agriculture.

In Ukraine, where rural economy is on the decline, most probably, nothing has been heard of landscape-adaptivefarming.

1.3. Environmentally friendly farming

Biological methods of farming, based on reduction or giving up totally synthetic fertilizers and chemicalplantsprotection with maximum usage of biological factors to increase soil fertility, eliminate diseases, pests andweeds areactively developed and mastered in most of the developed countries. Also performing a number of other activities that do not have negative impact on environment, but improving conditions for harvest maturing. Thisproductionsystem received a name of environmentally friendly agriculture.

1.4. Organic farming

Organic farming – is typical for the countries so called “golden milliard” that has received some unique formsofdevelopment in developing countries. This term is generally adopted in official terminology of USA, Europe and many other countries and it means the agricultural method, when usage of synthetic agro chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides) genetic engineering in order to receive “ecologically clean” products is forbidden.

In Evgenij Milovanov’s opinion, president of Organic Federation of Ukraine, “organics” is not just and old fashioned method of land cultivation, but it is an art of interaction between soil and its inhabitants. “Living substances” are working at soil fertility – milliards of soil bacteria, animalcular fungus, worms and other organisms.  They saturate plants, protect them from diseases, support soil health and saturate soil with nitrogen. People’s taskisto cerate them conditions for ordinary existence. It means, first of all not to dig over and not to furrow soil deeply, refuse from chemical fertilizers.  In organic farming maximum allowed depth inside the soil is just from 5 to 7 centimetres. During very intensive agricultural production, microorganisms have been completely substituted for chemical fertilizers and as we know it is harmful for the soil and people.

Learning and supporting existing ecological systems and cycles, support soil health, flora, fauna and a planet as  organic whole - these are the main principles of organic farming.  For organic farmers human being is not a wreath of the nature, but it is integral part of ecosystem.

A founder of organic farming is considered to be Albert Goward (1873-1948).  Most of his life he lived in India and there he developed his system of composting and soil fertilizing. His book “Dispensations of farming” had a great impact at that time and to him many supporters around the world.

For the first time this term “organic farming” was used by lord North Lord Northbourn, Walter Ernest Christopher James in 1940. Such people as Eve Balfor and Jerom Irving Rodeil played very important role in the process of developing and popularisation of the concept. In 1930 Eve Balfor carried out Haglijskyiexperimentwhere during the period of 40 years “ordinary” and organic husbandry was conducted on different fields of the same farm with the purpose of detailed comparison. Rodeil started spreading of organic gardening.

In animal husbandry, a feature of organic farming is refusal from year round stalled keeping of cattle, compulsory cattle pasturing and non-use of feed supplement and hormones.

Modern followers of organic farming understand it much broader as it is done in official quarters. For themitis not only receiving food of a good value, it is a philosophy. It is first of all, understanding of processes happening in the nature, it is on going observation, study of plants, fauna, people between themselves and space objects interrelation.

It is known for a long time, that the Moon influences water springs. Organic farmers have also discovered about the Moon and zodiacal circle influence onto the processes happening inside the plants. Therefore, thesefactors are also taken into account, while using this method of exploiting land.

In 1972, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) was founded in Versailles, and it set an object to widespread the information and adoption of organic farming in all countries of the world. Sincethebeginning of 1990-s world markets connected with organic farming were going up for 20 % annually. In theUSA, market volume of products from organic farms increased form 1$ milliard in 1994 up to 13 $ milliards in 2003.

At present, thanks to the search of many people, term of “organic farming” has got lots of synonyms: natural, biological, recovering, adaptive, smart and constructive farming.

1.5. Biodynamic farming

In 1924 Austrian philosopher, a founder of Anthroposophy Rudolf Shteiner (1861-1926) spokeabouttheoretical concept of biodynamic farming that became predecessor of organic agriculture.  Practically it was implemented by his fellow countryman Erenfried Pfeiffer.

Peculiarity of this method is attentive attitude to the interrelation and cooperation between elements oflivingsociety, between society and environment and the whole universe. It comes out from the Moon and stars influence on to plants development, linking it to the position of heavenly body. From practical point of view its principals are that to do all farming (agricultural work) according to natural and space rhythms and using biodynamic preparations for plants care, composting muck and other organic wastes.

According to the theory of biodynamic farming to support the effect of space strength on to the plants and inplantsthemselves allow special preparations that are obtained from the parts of certain plants (milfoil, chamomile, oakrind, valerian flowers). The essential role is assigned for biodynamic composts, to prepare which also use biodynamic preparations. All activities on soil fertilizing are turned to creation of fertility “corresponding to the nature”.

Principles of biodynamic farming are used as a base for making out moon calendars for sowing crops that are very popular among farmers. In scientific literature, there are lots of reclamations about biodynamic farming.  They draw our attention to insufficient experimental confirmation of theoretical postulates in this field and big difficulties togetsame yields based on biodynamic farming as using traditional one.

Today biodynamic is becoming more and more popular method of land utilization among farmers and gardeners, alternative to ordinary agriculture.

For a long time only small number of enthusiasts were persistently giving proofs, that using biodynamic method essential soil improvement could be reached.  In 1993 this persistence was proved by publishing results of 4 year research, during which specially selected pairs of biodynamic and ordinary farms were compared.   This scientific report done by a group of scientists from Washington and Massey (New Zealand) Universities became famous among biodynamists as “Reginald Report” named after chief doctor from Washington John Reginald.

During the research was found out that under almost similar financial conditions. Biodynamic farms havereachedessential improvement of the soil. For those tested were chosen pairs of gardening husbandries, pairofgreenhouses, and also pair of mixed farms with ploughed field and dairy cattles. Soil was evaluated by 17 differentindexes including a few ordinary ones. One of them is an index of “The breath of soil”.

The breath of the soil was evaluated on how quick soil sample used oxygen bag. It means that therearemicroorganisms inside the soil and more they are active, more oxygen it needed for breathing.   Therefore, sample that uses more oxygen more likely to have more working bacteria, more likely earthworms, and other big organisms.  Reginald’s research showed that biodynamic farms in general had substantially higher index of “soil breath” compare to the ordinary farmers and it is a key to understanding a real difference between ordinary and biodynamic farming (agriculture).

Ordinary farming pays special attention to the plant alimentation, on the contrary, biodynamic farming first of all pays attention to the soil and its organisms’ alimentation.  Soil – living environment where lots of live organisms process organic and mineral substances into acceptable form for the plants.   For instance, recent research at the University of Massey proved that earthworms can free from loams carbonic potassium in quantities that was found in many soils.  This fact explains phenomenon that was notices by biodynamists long ago.  In their soils level of potassium available for plants has increased in spite of a fact that no artificial potassium additives were used.

In order to increase a number of soil living organisms biodynamists prepare and use special biodynamic fertilizers, one of which is known as “keratin muck” or “500”. Its breathing index (a number of absorbed oxygen) is very high, which means biological activity. Other experiments prove that during winter stay inside the soil as they are, faecal  bacteria are replaced by humus like.

Agronomists usually notice striking soil changes after applying this preparation two- three times during 18 months. Earthworms appear in a big quantity, many types of clover or it is like appear, soil becomes soft and crumbly, worms enter deeper into the soil brining up pans to the surface. Sometimes deepening of fertile and surface layercanbe seen.

Biodynamists also have a number of similar methods, that support nature and not ruining it. To control organic processes in the compost and fertilizers and directing them in the right way, and also formation of microelements so necessary for cultivated plants they use also 6 different preparations made of special types of ripped herbs.

In many countries, there are Associations of Biodynamic Agriculture where gardeners and farmers can exchange experiences. Associations support farmers who are beginners, conduct research, organize practical workshops on the fields that people could see visually how to start using biodynamic preparations on their lands. Almost all associations have their own periodical magazine, that publish annual biodynamic moon calendars about all fields of agriculture, offers of biodynamic farms about their products, seeds, preparations, articles and lots of other interesting information.

In Ukraine just some farmers started to change the biodynamics. Since 1994 in St.Petersburg moon calendars, of famous in the whole world German biodynamists Maria Thun and Matias C. Thun, were first printed in Russian.

In Russia, first biodynamics farm was founded in 1992 on initiative of Bernard Hack, comrade of M. Thun, 130 kilometers from Moscow in the village of Bolotovo. Now separate groups of horticulturists (gardeners) are working in Uhta, Perm, Tolyatti, Samara, Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Moscow, in Valdai and Valaam.  In 1999, small farm was started in Stavotino village, Luzhskiy region of St.Peresburg, where, for about 7 years they grow different fruits and vegetables, regularly held seminars on biodynamic basic studies which include practical training of preparation production.

In Ukraine, since 2008 Lviv club of organic farming together with the club from Brody city started to produce biodynamics preparations. In their opinion these preparations indeed have got positive effect.

Here are their references about preparation of «keratin muck»:

  1. Brisk up the work of soil microorganisms, bacteria (preparation is natural biostimulant) that favours very quick transformation of the upper fertile layer of soil into the humus.
  2. Considerably improves superficial and deep aeration that favours better development of vegetation on thelandprocessed with this preparation and increases productivity.
  3. Negative impact of radioactive strontium and cesium on to the upper layer of soil on polluted byradionuclideterritories is decreasing for 6-9 times, neutralize negative influence of other ecologically dangerous pollutants. Thiswas confirmed many times by biodynamic farmers from around the world

1.6. Organic–biological farming

In western countries there are few more trends of alternative farming, different to biodynamic, but similarbetweenthemselves. It is attributed to organic-biological farming. Unlike biodynamic it does not take into account space rhythms and intake of special preparations.  The essence of its concept comes to:

  • creation of “live and healthy” soil at the expense of maintaining microbiological activity;
  • farm has to use internal resources reproduction output, supporting balance of nutrients;
  • use only organic fertilizers, usually composts;
  • out of mineral fertilizers slowly soluble are acceptable (potassium-magnesium, tomoss slag) and basalt meal;
  • it is forbidden to use chemical pesticides;
  • for weed, vermin and diseases control only mechanical, preventive  and biological methods are used. Essential plant oils, herbal potion and broth, vegetable insecticide, sulfuric and copper preparations areallowedtoo;
  • superficial soil processing is done;
  • all actions to control soil fertility and plants protection are done within the system of crop rotation.

1.7. Permaculture

«Permaculture» (from engl. «permaculture» — «permanent agriculture») — according to the official definition it isasystem of designing viable, extremely long developing environments around people, that are very effective intermsof put in work and use biological resources instead of fossil fuel. This system is developed in 1974 by Australian zoologist Bill Mollison together with David Holmgren.

Bill Mollison grew in a small village on Tasmania Ireland. Local residents have been producing everything themselves what hey needed. They were producing shoes, doing metal work, fishing, farming and growing fruits and vegetables and baking bread for themselves.

At the beginning of 50-s Bill noticed that some changes have been happening with his homelands: fish and algae were decreasing on the seacoast, started to disappear big parts of forest and climate started to change.

After many years of work as a field researcher under the Institute of Wild Nature Studies and also in Tasmania Fishery Department, Bill started to take active part in protests against that political and industrial system, which as he saw was destroying people and environment.

But very soon he understood that there is no point to persist in opposition that does not bring any results.

And he secluded himself for two years in order to come back with something that could let people live without wide-ranging demolition of environment.

So in 1974 a system of ecologically reasonable farming was created together with David Holmgren and it is based on combination of variety and multilevel of perennial crops: trees, bushes, grassy plants, mushrooms, and root crops. As a result of this work in 1978 a book “Permaculture One” was published and it was followedbyPermaculture Two”. “

Arrangement of permaculture farming means creation of stable, autonomous, economically viableself-developing ecosystem with closed cycle, which can provide people living in it, with everything necessary and this system does not produce wastes. Such initially well organized system can exist extremely long without human participation.

Here are the main principles of permaculture written in a book “Introduction to Permaculture” by Bill Mollison:

  • If possible use local species or those ones that are very well known, and it is known that theystrikeroot in the given conditions. Thoughtless usage of potentially aggressive species can bring to the balance disorder in the environment. 
  • If possible, cultivate the smallest piece of land. Develop small size energy effective intensive systems instead of big size extensive systems that consume a lot of energy.  
  • Practice variety of species use polycrops (the opposite to monocrops). This ensures stability and allows being ready for ecological changes as well as for social ones.
  • Increase the variety of made products; consider the total amount of products produced by the system where one-year and perennial plants, cereals, trees and animals are included. Look at the saved energy also as produced item.
  • Use natural (sun, water and wind) and biological (plants and animals) systems in order topreserveand produce energy.
  • enew practice to produce food in the cities, as traditionally it was always done in thosecivilizationsthat existed without damaging the environment.  
  • Help people to obtain independence and promote development of group responsibility.
  • Plant trees and recover soil fertility.
  • Use everything to the optimum level and utilize waste.
  • Look for solutions and not for problems.
  • Work there where it makes sense (plant tree where it strikes root, help those people who really wants to learn something new).
  • Take into the consideration the long term effect of your actions. Make everything possible toensurestability.
  • Comparative disposition: each element (house, lake, road etc.) is located relative to theotherelements in such a way that they could interact with each other.
  • Each element performs many functions.
  • Each important function is proceeded at the expense of many elements.
  • Effective planning for the house and settlement (zones and sectors).
  • Primary utilization of biological resources instead of fuel fossil.
  • Process energy locally (fuel and human energy).
  • Usage and activation of mechanisms on natural change of species, for the purpose of improving soil and other conditions.
  • Using species diversity for the purpose of the system to be more productive and it had components of interaction.

Very good example of permaculture farming that can be seen with our own eyes is a farm ofAustrianlandowner Sepp Holzer. During 40 years of his life, on the 45 ha of the mountain slope this farmer created paradise corner, not knowing yet about the existence of permaculture.  On his farm everything is organised very wisely and with practical approach and every single detail is thought over. His motto is “Less work better result”.Holzer saysthat he tends to independence. He has got his own watermill, oil mill and power station.

Observing the nature, Holzer creates as he calls them “edible gardens” where fruit trees and bushes, conifers trees, leaf-bearing trees and ornamental types of trees are growing up in symbiosis. Big role in creation of ecosystem Holzer pays to water. He created a whole lake system, which in combination with stones, old snags, high banks and surrounding lakes create its softer microclimate on his plot.  Due to this he can grow heat-loving cropssuch as kiwi, sweet-cherries, pumpkins, grapes and many others.

Probably, it is clear that this person does not use either chemical fertilizer or pesticides. Wisely organised system controls all the processes itself. Holzer uses animals as his workers. So pigs are working as ploughmen, sowers and weeders. If he needs a patch for sowing he scatters peas and corn on the selected patch and let pigs out there. Looking for favourite delicacies pigs dig over all soil. Holtzer just has to sow seeds and again scatter peas and corn let the pigs out there. Eating up all peas and corn they dig into the sowed crops and tread down. When sowing rise, Holzer will let pig out to weed the patch. Such clever organisation of work allows Holzer not to be snowed with special animal feeding, as they find food themselves.

He also wisely raises fish. Ponds are arranged in such a way that there live predatory and peaceful fishes. Young fishes of one are the food the others. Everything is done as in the nature, and happens by itself. Human just keeps order, wisely manages the process and takes out of it as much as not to damage it.

At the time when farmers from around the world receive help from the government, Holzer’s farm bringshimsome income that allows him to participate and finance ecological projects on recovery of natural landscapes inthecountries that suffer from ecological disaster.

Here in Ukraine and in other countries of the CIS, permaculture is just started to be implemented by single farmers and plot of land owners and most of them are members of Organic Farming Club and founders of patrimonies. In developed countries permaculture is more famous and applied in eco-settlements and alternative communities and also people who live environmentally friendly or natural lifestyle. In the USA, California there is permaculture center where they run workshops and read lectures, also printing information on this subject is published and distributed.

1.8. Natural farming

A founder of the method of natural farming is also our contemporary, Japanese farmer Masanobu Fukuoka. Over 30 years he was developing and improving a method as he called it himself “Doing nothing (idleness)”. Peculiarity of it is that Mr. Fukuoka looking after his farm by the means of cooperation with nature and not trying to conquer or improve it.

In his interesting book “The One Straw Revolution” he writes: “Usually the mode of developing methods is when the following questions are asked: “What if we try this?” or “What if we try that?”, in other words try different agrotechnology methods, one after the other. That is how our agriculture looks like and it’s the only result is to make farmer busier.

My method is directly the opposite. I tend to pleasant and natural way of farming, the purpose of which is to make work easier and not more complicated. “ And what if I do not do this? And what if I do not do that? “ thisis my way of thinking.

The reason why the improvement of agrotechnology seems to be so necessary is because the naturalbalance is destroyed already by this agrotechnology and land becomes very much dependent on it.

The farm of Mr. Fukuoka includes rise fields (0.5ha) and mandarins’ gardens (5ha).  Over 30 years hisfarmdoes not know ploughing, he does not use either fertilizers or pesticides and not even compost, he does not cover with water his rise fields as it is done all over the world, he does not trim his mandarin garden. Moreover, Mr. Fukuoka gets harvests that cannot be compared with most productive farms that use traditional technologies. His products are very much in demand among customers because they differ from others by their unsurpassed taste.

Everything started from insight. Masanobu Fukuoka is phytopathologist. When he was 25, he was working in Customs Administration in Yokohama in the department of plants inspection. With enthusiasm doing a research of plants’ diseases and pests, Mr. Fukuoka more often and often thought about the question, why recently intensive development and spreading of pathogen organisms and harmful insects occur, in spite of science progress in a struggle with these negative actors.

He had lots of free time and very often he was walking around abandoned neighborhood observing the nature and thinking about the meaning of life. One day on abandoned rise field among weeds ad left over rise straw he noticed quite strong and thick plants of self sowed rise. What he had seen has overthrown his mind.  At that moment he understood that commercialization of food production as well as other spheres of our life, in a rush formoney,makes people to look for new and more intensive technologies that brings us to the moment when we give up nature completely.  For the sake of momentary profit people violate and destroy nature, without even having a thought about consequences. This called a big protest inside heart of young scientist and he decided to stop his working activity and go back to the village of his farther for rethinking of the current situation.

As well as Bill Mollison, Masanobu Fukuoka decided to give people back lost knowledge ofnaturallifestyle, where growing food is not an exhausting business, but vital need, that not in a struggle, but in theharmonywith nature brings satisfaction and turns into the real art.

Search was going on for 30 years, and the method of simplified growing of traditional for Japan rise, rye, barley, buckwheat, and many vegetables, some of them are growing on its own in the mandarin garden of Mr. Fukuoka.

As a result of this searching, Mr. Fukuoka understood, that products grown with own hands are means for good physical and spiritual health of human beings and the process happening inside the live beings are more complicated than mechanical absorption of potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, starch, proteins etc.

If people would temporarily refuse their domination over nature and allowed nature to lead them, they could understand that nature provides them with everything they need. In the natural lifestyle Mr. Fukuoka compares relationship of human and nature as man and woman, united in the marriage which was not give or received from someone, but a couple establish it itself.

As a matter of fact, method of natural farming of Masanobu Fukuoka, it is revival of forgotten, not solongago, traditional Japanese lifestyle. Still after the Second World War in Japan 70-80% of the population was farmers versus today’s 14%.  With regard to this Mr. Fukuoka, writes in his book “One Straw Revolution” the following:

«In my opinion it would be ideal when 100 % of the population were farmers. In Japan per person thereisabout 0,1 ha of arable land. If each person receives 0,1 ha it will make 0,5 ha per family of five people and it will be more than enough to feed the whole family during one year. If natural farming is introduces then farmer willalsohave enough time to rest and social activities in the village community. I think it is a direct way to turn thecountryinto happy and prosper land».

Unfortunately in 2008 Masanobu Fukuoka revolutionary farmer died.  From all over the world (fromecosocieties, Israeli communities “kibutsa”, Indian Moksha, religious communes of different religious) were coming the follower to learn an experience from a  big Master.  Also in Japan on Suva nose Island there is a group ofpeoplewho try new forms of social system. Mr. Fukuoka thought that movement of these people is a way to better future.  Just among them natural farming started to spread quickly and gain the power.

1.9. Patrimonial land and patrimonial settlement

As we all know, new is well forgotten old thing. Same thing is happening with technologies in agriculture. None from the listed above technologies did not introduce anything radically new. All these are attempts tobringback balanced relationship with nature into the modern life of people.  If Non-till technology, landscape-adaptive, ecological, biodynamic, organic, organic-biological technologies could be related to alternative one, the permaculture and natural farming could be related to alternative lifestyle.

One of the models of such a lifestyle could be called Patrimonial settlement that consists of patrimony estates. Model is described in the books of Russian businessman and writer Vladimir Megre that belongs to the series “Ringing Cedars of Russia”. The purpose of such settlements is transition from consuming and destroying environment lifestyle to constructive nature friendly, integral part of which is human being.

Modern lifestyle, every year becomes less and less attractive for the greater part of the population. Frequent environmental disasters, problems of absence of quality and safe food products and in some regions problems of hunger, wars and acts of terrorism, number of illnesses in all countries of, commercialization of all spheres of life brings to the lack of free time or self-actualization and loss of meaning of life, economical and political crisis are linked directly to the social system we have today.

And in such a critical moment for the mankind, as saving remedy, rang an idea of moving in the directionofthe fundamentally new lifestyle. This idea is simple as everything genius and it consists in the following.

Each family is admeasured 1 ha of land plot for creating there balanced habitat of family kind (and here comes the name “Family estate”). Family estate cannot be sold, but it is handed down to next generations. Thispiece of land is settled down by principles of permaculture or natural farming.  Here the size of land 1 ha has a key meaning, because it is optimal for everybody’s ability to develop and support eco-systems of one family and allows creating self–developing ecosystem and minimizing anthropogenic load on to the area.

In order to create stable eco-system that allows one family to free some time from earning their living and allows solving a lot of other problems. On the plot of land hedge from perennial plants is planted, about half of land is taken by forest of mixed types, garden is created and pond made. All this contributes to the favorable climate to live and grow food products and also self-fertilizing is happening due to falling off leaves and dried out branches of trees. A problem of building material and renewable fuel is resolved after planting quick-growing types of trees: willow, acacia, elder, maple.

Houses are built from natural and easy utilized materials, in order not to leave for our descendantsaheadache from foolish ancestors. The house is designed taking into the consideration heat and energy efficiency. Products of family vital functions, organic are utilized locally straight away and non organic are minimized and centrally taken out for further recycling

During the transition period it is possible to use very limited number of centralized energy resources, optionally and according financial means of each family – using alternative energy sources, working at the expense of renewable resources

At the expense of wise development of land, people will get some free time and will be able to starthealthylifestyle and develop (or open) in them still sleeping abilities, inserted in each of us by Creator.  In the future with thehelp of these abilities, mankind will be able to refuse from using not renewable resources on the Earth, and maybe will find new, ecologically safe for everything live sources of energy. Besides, people will get an opportunity to participate in different social and ecological projects not only in their home countries but also in the other countries in need.

A number of families in this village should be from 100 to 200, in order to make this settlement stableandwithout any destroying for environment elements. This quantity will also help to the further spreading of settlers experience on to the  neighboring territories (effect of “hundred monkey”).   Settlement should be very independent from existing system and not only when it comes to food production. Education, upbringing children, medical service and production of necessary things in every day life etc., should be organized by thepeoplethemselves in their settlements or neighboring territories.

Control of the relationship in such settlements is done by the way of collective self-administration likewhendecisions are made by all people of the settlement, young to old, unanimously. Since, among settlers there are only people who hold the same views, the possibility of ineffective decreasing. Althoughpractical experience shows thattoday not all interested people are ready to organize settlements of such form of interaction. “popular assembly”,

Nowadays, so far as the idea of Family settlements rose a keen response in all countries of the world, a network of such settlements, which:

a) will give  a possibility to change conditions and quality of life for many people and it will have positive effectonlives of urban population;

b) It will have positive effect on health of the whole planet, because settlements will be planned in the way thattocombine between themselves already existing forest areas making forest corridors, where fauna can migrate and restore its biodiversity.

2. Peculiarities of alternative farming

Main peculiarity of alternative farming is that methods and modes used in agrotechnology do not destroysoilor reduce its fertility, they are recovering. With the help of these methods natural rise of humus level, recoveryof soilmicroflora and due to this plants becoming strong, healthy and able to resist diseases and pests.

Second peculiarity is that with the help of alternative farming natural balance of insects and small typeofanimals is restored, food chain is renewed, where for each mouth there is another one, therefore, quantity of good insects and pests is controlled naturally.

One more peculiarity of alternative farming is that it is not an aim to get big harvests, but consequence of it. What is striven is to keep nature for future generations and grow useful and healthy food products.

3. Development of long-term alternative farming in Ukraine

Not only in Ukraine, but also around the world, after so many years of technological “progress” people could be convinced from their own experience about advantages and disadvantages of food products growth with the help of agro-chemicals      and of course not in their favour. Due to high technology and agriculture at the present point in time, question of humans’ existence as of a kind on the Earth arises. Therefore, alternative farming is the only possibility to prevent “quiet catastrophe” as experts from UN call earth dying poisoned by pesticides.   According o the data from the Agency of UN on environmental protection Ukrainian black earth (chernozem) received very bad mark – 41 % of lands are subject to erosion. As doctor of biological science, academician Vladimir Patyki says, 10 of 30 millions hectares of agricultural lands of Ukraine should be out of use and exonerated.  For this purpose, at the institute of agroecology special programme on organic farming development called “Agroecological monitoring and modelling stable systems” is created and it is oriented on farmers who would like to start alternative farming.

During the last four – five years, in spite of missing state policy in the sphere of alternative farming, certainenthusiastsof the country understood that people in trouble are left to themselves and nobody will lift a finger to help those in trouble and started to create associations. Clubs of organic farming were created by a few certified organizations: Organic Federation of Ukraine, about 40 farms moved to nature friendly methods of farming, and these are only members of the “Biolan” association.  Although, in Ukraine there is no official statistical data on volumes of produced products and number of farms and cultivated by them areas, there are estimations of International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), which certifies organic productions. On the given data, last year n Ukraine 70 farms were functioning and were busy with organic farming with the total area of 240 thousands ha.

During the last 4 years Club of Organic farming grew in to the network of branches all around Ukraine, their number grew to 80 and they are in all big cities. Over this period of time supporters of the club became 40 thousands people and they are mostly summer resident (in the country) and gardeners. Manual flatcutters of Fokin, work tool to work on the surface of the soil, about 1 million items were sold out. If suppose that only 10 % out of them are using it, this figure will also be impressive.

Very logical question can arise: “Where are all these organic products?” Nowadays products with such marking can be bought in the shopping center only grains of sprout wheat and rye of trade mark “Zhmenka”, buckwheat and rye of the trademark “Biolan”. First of all, greater part of produced products is exported to Poland and Check (it is profitable for domestic producer, because foreign buyers firms pay the certification of the products and our farmers are guaranteed products sales). Secondly, is that out shopping centers are not ready to take organic food products, because of the missing law “About organic farming”. Some owners of big supermarkets explain it also that in Ukraine there is no yet a demand for ecologically safe products.

In the nearest future, Club of Organic farming is about to eliminate this gap, becoming a reseller between producer of organic food and consumers. In Ukraine there is already a network of consulting points, technical issues on transportation, storage and warehousing are to be resolved.

As we used to say “when there is no luck, accident will help”, same thing happening in Ukraine, longlastingeconomical crisis favor a return to natural methods of farming. Lots of agricultural enterprises do not have a turnover to buy expensive pesticides; therefore they have to look for costless technologies in order to survive, under these extreme conditions.  Very good example is private enterprise “Agroekologia”, organic farming allowed them to reduce 4 times fuel costs, saying nothing about substantial saving on fertilizers and pesticides.

From world’s experience, there is one more advantage of moving in to organic farming is creation of additional working places in the village.  It also opens new horizons for small farms, therefore strengthening viability of village communities and creating for them certain social guarantees, which are so pressing now in Ukraine.

Conclusion and recommendations

As can be seen from this research, main task of alternative types of farming is to recover health of people andtheplanet on general that suffered pretty much in the technocratic century, by growing ecologically healthy and full value products. And finally, return to primary programme of Creator, and lifestyle where everything exists in thepeace and agreements with each other.   Even form the very beginning in Edem all animals did not eat each other, they were eating grass: “And to all animals and birds and each reptile on earth which is alive I gave all greenery for food. And it became so” (the (Book of) Genesis, 1:30).

Egyptian priests, those created the existing today active state system knew the secret of 1 hectare; thereforetheynever ate food produced by slaves. Each of them had his own hectare, where they lived and were gardening personally. To be effective in managing people they had to freeze a speed of thought of the nation. For this priests nurtured special types of wheat (to feed slaves) and invented methods to reduce energetic value of the products, in a way of thermal processing that brought to the cooking style that became enemy number one for the human beings.

With such nutrition life expectancy of slaves was not long, but priests were not disappointed, because their menuhadlots of meat that raises sexual activity, therefore, there was no problems in Egypt with slaves replacement.

The secret of hectare knew even Rome emperors.  Among slaves they were finding people who could grow food products correctly. They were giving them freedom, dispense hectare of land, helped to build house, and all these was done in order to be get half of the harvest for their own means (from the book V. Megre “ Ringing Cedars of Russia”)

In spite of all efforts of priests, who rule the world nowadays, Divine part of human soul was always tending to join divine entire part. We and surrounding us world is not something else as material thoughts of God. And only livinginharmony with the whole nature you can be really happy.

Vladimir Megre in his book “Energy of life” said: «Human being always felt a real beauty and perfection ofeternaland that is why even tsar, surrounded by luxury and possessing palaces, always wanted to have a garden. Itis the truth that remained unshakeable over millions years of human life on the Earth.

Home Peoples Eco-Life Alternative farming